Physics

Extension of the application range and parameters of the Airy pendulum for obtaining Lissajous curves

The Airy pendulum is a simple mechanical device for demonstrating the addition of two mutually perpendicular oscillations of the load which trajectory has the form of Lissajous curve. During experiments it was noticed that some Lissajous curves did not match with ones calculated according to the classical theory of Airy pendulum oscillations. In this project theoretical model of Airy pendulum load composite oscillations in specific conditions is developed and is used for the Lissajous curves form explanation. The proposed theoretical model is confirmed by the results of experiments in this project.

The Design of Computer Controlled Refractometer

In this project, we aimed to design a computer-controlled refractometer with the basic tools we had. For this purpose we used a hollow glass prism which is filled with a liquid whose refractive index to be measured. We placed this prism on a stepper motor in front of a laser module. So the laser beam refracts as it passes through this liquid and falls to the screen on the other side of the prism with a deviation. To determine angle of this deviation, we used a webcam. We adjusted the angle of incidence of the beam by rotating the stepper motor. A Python code is used to determine the amount of deviation and to rotate the stepper motor via Arduino. In order to test the refractometer we designed, refractive indices of different liquids were measured and presented with error calculations.

Acoustic levitation. Building and analyzing two different acoustic levitators based on piezoelectric transducers, and exploring its current and possible future applications using simple physical and chemical experiments.

The paper explores the notions of Acoustic Levitation using acoustic tractor beams with both single and double arrays. These devices are able to generate different types of acoustic traps allowing the levitation of objects of low density and up to the size of half a wavelength. For this purpose piezoelectric transducers have been used. Based on Dr. Asier Marzo’s investigations, the main aim of this research paper is to prove the effectiveness of this method and to explore its potential applications in areas such as medicine, biology and technology. To test the applications of this method, several measurements, experiments and chemical reactions have been carried out and documented , as a demonstration and example of the possible practical uses of acoustic levitation systems.

Introduction of a Novel Diodicity Evaluation Criteria and 1-D Approximate Model for Multistaged NMP (No-Moving-Parts) Check Valves and Methods for Valve Stage Optimization

A new diodicity evaluation criteria, Volumetric Diodicity (Dv), is introduced to analyze the diodicity of NMP (No-Moving-Parts) valves. Recent studies about the valve system are based on the pressure diodicity, defined as the ratio between the pressure drop in forward and reverse flow. However, existing evaluation criteria do not show discrete relationships with actual data. In this paper, an inelastic collision-based analytic turbulent model was designed to approximate the tendency of diodicity by stage number and was verified both experimentally and numerically with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). The new diodicity criterion can be applied in numerous fields that require NMP valves which are operated in relatively low-pressure ranges.

Wave-particle duality: an experimental test of Compton’s theory

The aim of my project was to test Compton’s model for the interaction between electromagnetic (EM) radiation and free electrons. Compton’s development of this model was of great importance for the understanding of the wave-particle duality. It is based on a particle model for EM radiation, which in classic physics is interpreted as waves. I tested the model by analyzing scattering in the angles between 60 and 120 degrees. The results in the angles above 70 degrees corresponded well with the model, and the deviations in the lower angles could be explained by systematic sources of error. Thus the results do not indicate that the theory should be reevaluated, but support the particle model for the interaction between EM radiation and matter.

Automation and Remote Control of Astronomical Telescopes for a Global Asteroid Survey

Our goal is to solve the problem of important astronomical observations not getting enough telescope time. We think this problem can only be solved by involving amateur astronomers. To make this easier we have designed a system to automate the data collection and some of the processing of astronomical data. With the hardware and software designed to operate together, we can collect quality datasets, therefore they can be used for scientific research. We are mainly concentrating on Minor planet research, more specifically photometry and orbit calculations of Near Earth Objects. The product also functions as an automation controller for artistic astrophotography in addition to research. With this system, other surveys could easily be conducted in the future.

PLANet B-Exoplanet Pursuit

Is there an efficient method to look for alien worlds? By capturing astronomic data from the Keppler Space Telescope and using 2 self-made programs, we try to discover exoplanets. Analysing stellar light curves we managed to find an exoplanet and a pulsating star, while we were the first to calculate and publish their characteristics.

Advanced ARAGO, a „gravitational wave“ detector

LIGO and Virgo American-European scientific collaboration made first detection of gravitational waves produced by a binary black holes merger (BBH)On the same principle, we simulate a gravitational wave detector with a completely innovative technique. This way we create a deformation of the space which corresponds to an hypothetical BBH merger. We detect and analyze it thanks to techniques which are similar to those used by scientists in order to determine the parameters of the event : mass of merging objects and distance to the Earth.On the footsteps of the scientist Arago, a pedagogue and a great popularizer, we propose an innovative approach to popularize the latest discoveries in gravitational astronomy.

Fabrication of binary amplitude holograms using a film camera

Fabrication of holograms is generally complicated and expensive. Therefore, it was studied, how to create high-quality computer-generated holograms using only affordable and widespread equipment. To make binary amplitude holograms with customized diffraction patterns, a computer program was written and photographic reduction with a film camera was used. The optimal parameters of the fabricated holograms as well as differences between using three different film types were determined. It was found that all film types are suitable for fabrication and in addition to laser light, the diffraction patterns are clearly visible when a mobile phone flashlight is viewed through the holograms. Such holograms can be used, for example, in physics lessons, science events, or escape rooms.

The Perfect Europe Dinghy Sailor

The project explores how to become The Perfect Europe Dinghy Sailor. Therefore, the project presents the physics of sailing with a primary focus on the aerodynamics. A model of the Europe Dinghy is designed, and an experiment analyzing the force generated by the sail is performed in a wind tunnel. At last, a complex model is developed to quantify the subjective decisions made while sailing. In the light of the theories, the project finds that the physics of sailing can be described with Bernoulli’s principle. Furthermore, the project reveals that Europe Dinghy sailing is primarily influenced by an isometric muscle contraction in the quadriceps. Finally, the force analysis makes it possible to create optimal movement patterns for the athlete and enabling direct comparison between athletes.

Narrow-band Photometry of Emission Nebula Using Small-Caliber Optical Telescope

The emission nebula is very common in interstellar matter, and its continuum has several obvious emission lines. In order to study the chemical elements in the emission nebula, this paper uses a small optical telescope with Hα, [SII], [OIII] narrow-band filters to select four emission nebulae for observation. A lot of results can be obtained by analyzing the experimental data. For example, in most of the emission nebulae, the content of Hα is much larger than [SII] and [OIII], and in the supernova remnants, the content of Hα is less. This study proposes a new method of extended source photometry, and estimates the brightness of the selected emission nebula in each band. This method also helps to plan the exposure time for large telescopes, thus can improve observation efficiency.

Schlieren imaging

Have you ever wondered what it is like to see something invisible?

The aim of my project was to create a homemade experimental stand (following Foucault’s idea) and to show that physics can be breath taking. My project allows seeing different gases, air currents and movements, a breath or even sound waves. With the use of a special apparatus consisting of a mirror, a video camera, an LED light, and a razor blade, it is possible to see something that a bare eye cannot, such as warmth coming from a hand. All thanks to the occurring physical phenomenon like refraction, the fact that the razor blade lets only some of the reflected light rays back into the camera lens, the “invisible” image can be created. It is magical when you can see physics, and schlieren imaging makes it possible.

Investigation of the Prince Rupert’s drop properties

Prince Rupert’s drops (PRDs) are very interesting from both scientific and commercial points of view. The main achievements of my theoretical and experimental research are studying the way of PRDs obtainment, defining how much shape and optic-mechanical properties of a drop can vary and achieving very accurate data of how much pressure can PRDs stand. The most important commercial aspects are creation of PRD-based drilling bits, which are muchcheaperthan nowadays’ diamond onesbut still as good as them, composite body armor prototypes and experiments with PRD + concrete composites.