Estonia

The Inheritance of the Silver Gene in the Gene Pool of the Estonian Horse and the Expression of the PMEL17 Gene in the Silver Dapple Phenotype

Current study describes the occurrence of the PMEL17 mutation that causes the Silver phenotype on the example of an Estonian horse called Muuksi Tuul. The aim of the research is to explain the diluting effect in mane and tail of the PMEL17 mutation which is also associated with several eye disorders (MCOA syndrome) e.g. cysts and cataracts. In addition to the studies about individual horses, the research offers a possible reason to the wide range of Estonian horse coat colours and gives a possible answer to the origin of the Silver gene in its genotype. Furthermore, the research tries to fill the gap between new knowledge in colour genetics and linguistically used colour terms, proposing one possible solution for creating a system for the designations of the (Estonian) horse coat colours.

Fabrication of binary amplitude holograms using a film camera

Fabrication of holograms is generally complicated and expensive. Therefore, it was studied, how to create high-quality computer-generated holograms using only affordable and widespread equipment. To make binary amplitude holograms with customized diffraction patterns, a computer program was written and photographic reduction with a film camera was used. The optimal parameters of the fabricated holograms as well as differences between using three different film types were determined. It was found that all film types are suitable for fabrication and in addition to laser light, the diffraction patterns are clearly visible when a mobile phone flashlight is viewed through the holograms. Such holograms can be used, for example, in physics lessons, science events, or escape rooms.

The Influence of the Content of Nutrients and Soil pH on the Needle Measurements of the Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on Puhatu Cutaway Peatland

The aim of this study was to research the influence of nutrient contents and soil pH to Scots pine needle length and area in cutaway peatland. The samples were collected from 5 different experimental areas: fertilized with various amounts of wood and oil shale ash (3), control and natural area. The main result of the study was that fertilizing with ashes affected the growth of the needles positively, the most effective fertilizer was ash mixture. Also, the most important nutrients were phosphorus and potassium instead of nitrogen. Besides, the soil pH showed no correlation with the needle measurements. Further research is needed concerning the properties of ash mixtures as bio-innovative fertilizers and to find sustainable opportunities to reduce the amount of accumulated industry’s ashes.