Maat in old Kingdom Egypt

Maat is a word, principle and goddess in Ancient Egyptian thought and religion. Maat was thought of as the embodiment of order, both in the cosmic sense, and in the social sense. On the one hand, Maat was perceived as justice and social hierarchy, and on the other – as truth and “physical” order (such as gravity, tide and sunsets). In this paper, I examined the textual references of Maat in the Old Kingdom, focusing on the second half of the fifth dynasty (2445-2345 BCE). This period is thought to be a time of great changes, both political and religious. In order to do so, I examined titles and personal names from the period that contain the word „Maat“, as well as a inscriptions from Ancient Egyptian tombs, both royal and non-royal.

The effect of the E12 antibody on multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which immune cells attack neurons. When an immune response terminates, memory cells remain in the body in order to respond more effectively in future encounters. Previous studies found that the E12 antibody can increase differentiation of T-cells into T-type regulatory cells (Tr1), that secrete the cytokine IL-10 which represses abnormal immune responses. Our research examines whether E12 can increase their differentiation into memory cells. MS mice models treated with E12 showed substantial a reduction in clinical symptoms, and an increase in memory cells and IL-10 secretion compared to control. This indicates that Tr1 cells induced by E12 function as memory cells that can respond more effectively to the disease in future relapses.

Improving recovery time of patients with an Ilizarov external fixator around the ankle

The Ilizarov apparatus is used in orthopedic surgery to treat complex fractures by using an external ring around the ankle to fixate the limb in order to lengthen and heal the bone. When the fracture occurs in the ankle area the bottom ring is often located under the foot and prevents the patient from bearing weight on their broken limb. Weight bearing is essential to the recovery process.Our project provides a method for patients with an Ilizarov apparatus fixated at the ankle area to bear weight on their leg, improving the recovery time for such fractures.

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